A new study about the side effects of antibiotic treatment reveals that it may dysregulate postpubertal skeletal development by interfering with gut bacteria.

Researchers from the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) in Charleston – specialists in osteoimmunology, the “interface of the skeletal and immune systems” – have analyzed the impact of antibiotics on postpubertal skeletal development and have published their results in The American Journal of Pathology.

The study demonstrated that antibiotic disruption of the gut microbiota causes a pro-inflammatory response that may lead to less bone resorption, a process by which osteoclasts, or large bone cells, release the minerals and transfer them to the blood.

According to Chad M. Novince, Ph.D. — who studies the link between microbiome and skeletal health — the study “introduces antibiotics as a critical exogenous modulator of gut microbiota osteoimmune response during postpubertal skeletal development.”

The postpubertal phase of development supports the accumulation of about 40 percent of peak bone mass. Previous research by Novince and team had already shown that the gut microbiota contributes to skeletal health.

To determine the impact of antibiotics on the gut microbiota in postpubertal skeletal development, Novince conducted a new study. He did so in collaboration with microbiome scientist Alexander V. Alekseyenko, Ph.D., founding director of the MUSC Program for Human Microbiome Research.

The scientists treated mice with a cocktail of three antibiotics. Their findings showed that antibiotic treatment caused disruption in the gut microbiota. Following these results, Novince demonstrated that there were also significant changes to the trabecular bone.

The delicate balance of bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone-building by osteoblasts control bone metabolism.

The team saw that although there were no changes to the osteoblasts, the number of osteoclast cells, as well as their size and activity levels, was increased. This affects the process of bone resorption.

The scientists found that levels of osteoclastic signaling molecules were increased in the circulation of animals that they had treated with antibiotics. These findings led them to believe that increased osteoclast activity may be the result of a specific immune response to changes in the microbiota.

Further analysis of immune cells in the bone marrow confirmed this theory, revealing a significant increase in myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) of antibiotic-treated animals. MDSCs are cells that regulate the immune response during the course of various conditions.

“Our study is actually able to dive into specific adaptive and innate immune cell mechanisms within the bone marrow environment to show that there is an effect on the bone cells,” study co-author Jessica D. Hathaway-Schrader, Ph.D., noted

This study demonstrated that antibiotic disruption of the gut microbiota has a significant impact on the communication between the immune system and bone cells. Its findings may lead to clinical trials “aimed at defining the impact of specific antibiotics on the gut microbiome.”

SOURCE: A new study
about the side effects of antibiotic treatment reveals that it may dysregulate
postpubertal skeletal development by interfering with gut bacteria.

Researchers
from the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) in Charleston who specialize
in osteoimmunology, the “interface of the skeletal and immune
systems”, have analyzed the impact of antibiotics on postpubertal skeletal
development and have published their results in The American Journal of
Pathology.

The study
demonstrated that antibiotic disruption of the gut microbiota causes a
pro-inflammatory response that may lead to less bone resorption, a process by
which osteoclasts, or large bone cells, release the minerals and transfer them
to the blood.

According to
Chad M. Novince, Ph.D. — who studies the link between microbiome and skeletal
health — the study “introduces antibiotics as a critical exogenous
modulator of gut microbiota osteoimmune response during postpubertal skeletal
development.”

The postpubertal
phase of development supports the accumulation of about 40 percent of peak bone
mass. Previous research by Novince and team had already shown that the
gut microbiota contributes to skeletal health.

To determine
the impact of antibiotics on the gut microbiota in postpubertal skeletal
development, Novince conducted a new study. He did so in collaboration with
microbiome scientist Alexander V. Alekseyenko, Ph.D., founding director of the
MUSC Program for Human Microbiome Research.

The
scientists treated mice with a cocktail of three antibiotics. Their findings
showed that antibiotic treatment caused disruption in the gut microbiota. Following
these results, Novince demonstrated that there were also significant changes to
the trabecular bone.

The delicate
balance of bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone-building by osteoblasts
control bone metabolism.

The team saw
that although there were no changes to the osteoblasts, the number of
osteoclast cells, as well as their size and activity levels, was increased.
This affects the process of bone resorption.

The
scientists found that levels of osteoclastic signaling molecules were increased
in the circulation of animals that they had treated with antibiotics. These
findings led them to believe that increased osteoclast activity may be the
result of a specific immune response to changes in the microbiota.

Further
analysis of immune cells in the bone marrow confirmed
this theory, revealing a significant increase in myeloid-derived suppressor
cells (MDSCs) of antibiotic-treated animals. MDSCs are cells that regulate the
immune response during the course of various conditions.

“Our
study is actually able to dive into specific adaptive and innate immune cell
mechanisms within the bone marrow environment to show that there is an effect
on the bone cells,” study co-author Jessica D. Hathaway-Schrader, Ph.D.,
noted

This study
demonstrated that antibiotic disruption of the gut microbiota has a significant
impact on the communication between the immune system and bone cells. Its
findings may lead to clinical trials “aimed at defining the impact of
specific antibiotics on the gut microbiome.”

SOURCE: https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/324258.php?utm_source=newsletter&utm_medium=email&utm_country=ZA&utm_hcp=no&utm_campaign=MNT%20Weekly%20%28non-HCP%20non-US%29%20-%20OLD%20STYLE%202019-01-30&utm_term=MNT%20Weekly%20News%20%28non-HCP%20non-US%29


REFERENCE:
Hathaway-Schrader et al: Antibiotic Perturbation of Gut Microbiota Dysregulates
Osteoimmune Cross Talk in Postpubertal Skeletal Development; 
https://ajp.amjpathol.org/article/S0002-9440(18)30309-2/fulltext